Two types of malaria vaccine now, you should know -

Two types of malaria vaccine now, you should know

Malaria parasites respond to the immune system are very diverse, they can create thousands of different antigens. Therefore, developing a vaccine for it very difficult. Not as the form of other diseases, a malaria vaccine can not protect you lifetime.

In addition, at present the development of a malaria vaccine are experiencing many obstacles such as: lack of market, less developers and the complexity in technical research, formulated. However, the medicine has also been trying to put into researching many types of vaccine and received positive results.

Status development of a malaria vaccine

The complexity of the malaria parasite has made the development of vaccine become a difficult task. There are more than 20 types of malaria vaccine are in various stages of clinical trials and pre-clinical. In that vaccine, RTS, S/AS01 ã proven to be effective in phase 3 clinical trials.

WHO has set a goal of malaria elimination by the year 2040 with the basic model is still the room against mosquitoes, which is attached to using the vaccine. Therefore, the trial of the vaccine RTS, S/AS01 is considered as breakthrough of the medicine in the fight against malaria.

Resumed vaccine RTS, S/AS0, PfSPZ is the type of vaccine next get the promising results. They showed the ability to resist malaria parasites up to 100% only after 10 weeks of research.

The types of malaria vaccine now

Malaria Vaccine RTS, S/AS01

RTS, S/AS01 is the most likely contender for the fight against the form of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum dangerous.

The trial of Phase 3 of the vaccine RTS, S/AS01 is the most successful. It is done in 5 years (2009 to 2014) on the approximately 15,000 young children and infants in 7 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania).

The conduct of the trial vaccine was made as follows:

  • Children from 5-17 months of age: divided into 2 groups, one group will inject vaccine RTS, S/AS01 group left injection of a vaccine other to compare.
  • Children from 6-14 weeks of age was also divided into 2 groups: one group was injected vaccine RTS, S/AS01 group remaining injectable vaccine comparison in collaboration with vaccine pentavalent.
  • Total all children vaccinated with 3 doses of vaccine at intervals of 1 month. The 4th dose will be injected into 20 months after the first dose.

Results of the clinical trials showed that nearly 39% of children vaccinated with the vaccine RTS, S/AS01 is being protected from malaria.

Starting from 2018, vaccine RTS, S/AS01 is put on the pilot for the children living in the area Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

Vaccine Sporozoite (PfSPZ)

A candidate other promising for the prevention of malaria is Sporozoites. Vaccine Sporozoite is formulated from gametocytes (the parasite in its infectious). The gametocytes, this is undermined by the method of radiation and thermal shock.

Recent tests have shown that the vaccine PfSPZ safe, well tolerated and capable of protecting against malaria when administered intravenously. The research also indicates that they can be used for infants and small children.

Clinical studies of vaccine PfSPZ is made in the region, Mali, Gabon, Tanzania and Equatorial Guinea.

The road in front of a malaria vaccine

Vaccine RTS, S/AS01 and Vaccine PfSPZ is two candidates most promising to date. The other candidates are still in the development stage or testing.

The organization for global health top the world has built a roadmap for a malaria vaccine to increase the speed of our development.

Roadmap for a malaria vaccine by the year 2030, including the goal the following strategy:

  • Develop and license a malaria vaccine effectively protects at least 75% for the area of disease taking place.
  • Take a malaria vaccine into the community through the campaign of mass vaccination.

Preventive treatment malaria

Now to malaria, can only resort to the prophylactic drug of vaccine is still not widely developed.

However, it should be noted, preventive treatment of malaria may not protect you from the disease completely. We only help to significantly reduce the risk of disease in a time.

Most prophylactic treatment is usually done for those who are about to go into the region of infection in a short time, such as travel, go to work or do volunteer work here.

Preventive treatment malaria need to adhere to the following guidelines:

  • The dosage of the drug malaria prophylaxis for children should be based on body weight baby.
  • Mefloquine must be used from 2-3 weeks before exposure to the risk of infection. For example, if you intend to travel to regions with epidemic malaria, you need to use mefloquine 2-3 weeks before departure.
  • Taking chloroquine 1 week before exposure to risk of infection and disease.
  • Preventive treatment is daily doxycycline or atovaquone.
  • All prophylactic medications should be used regularly throughout the time you are exposed to the risk of infection and disease, continue to use when you are out of the danger zone 4 weeks later.
  • Depending on the area bring disease and type of disease malaria is growing in that choice of drug is suitable backup.

You may be interested in the topic:

  • Pregnant, sick with malaria: Signs, complications and treatment
  • Support the treatment of malaria at home by these natural materials
  • The way to detect plasmodium in the body

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